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G-i-P Report: The Hobbit linguistic summary
(to be continued)


(as translated by DAVID SALO)

Check also our website devoted to the linguistic analysis of The Lord of the Rings movie trilogy (you will find there phrases, inscriptions and lyrics in the neo-languages of Middle-earth analyzed by the Gwaith)


[light green are these phrases which were not included into the movie]

Most of the Sindarin words can be found in David Salo’s A Gateway to Sindarin (see here).

I’ve got a cameo as an elf. Or another cameo. My character is called Lindir. I hang out with Elrond… I’ve got a few lines in Elvish… [Bret McKenzie, „Lindir”]


1. Elin eb i istodh na dirad lin. [source]

‘How are you?’ (lit. ‘Happy am I beyond that which you know to see you’)

*elin v. ‘I am happy!’; from elo! intj. ‘an exclamation of wonder, admiration, delight’, ‘*el-, √EL or *gelin (lenited ‘elin), *gel- ‘to be merry, happy’,  √GJEL
*eb prep. ‘beyond’; cf. Quenya epë ‘before/after’?
i rel. pron. ‘who, which, that’
*istodh v. ‘you know’; ista- ‘have knowdlege’ + *-dh ‘thou’ (second-person familiar pronoun; cf. cerið (ceridh) and galoð (galodh) in PE#17, p. 132)
na prep. ‘with, by, near; to, toward, at; of’
tirad (lenited dirad) v. ‘to see’; cf. tíra- ‘see’
lin pron. ‘you’ (shouldn’t it be len instead?)

2. Boe i ‘watham. [source]

Let’s go (lit. ‘It is necessary we leave’)

boe v. impers. ‘it is necessary, one must, one is compelled to’ (specifical David Salo’s phrase used many times in the LotR movie)
i rel. pron. ‘who, which, that’; here used as ‘that’
gwatham (lenited ‘watham) v. fut. ‘we will go’; cf. gwa- ‘to go’ (PE#17, p. 148) and -m ‘we’.

3. Nauthon i miruvor ammen; man pedidh? [source]

‘Should we have a glass of wine?’ (lit. ‘I think about miruvor for us. What you say?’)

nauthon v. ‘I think’; cf. nautha- ‘conceive’
i art. ‘the’
miruvor, n. Sindarin version of the Quenya miruvórë
ammen pron. ‘to us, for us, of us’
*man pron. ‘who, what’
pedidh v. ‘you speak’; cf. ped- ‘speak’ + *-dh ‘thou’ (second-person familiar pronoun)

4. [Lindir to Gandalf:]

Lastannem i athrannedh i Vruinen. [source , source]

Subtitle: ‘We heard you had crossed into the Valley.’
(lit.: ‘We heard that you had crossed the Loudwater.’)

lastannem: lasta- (listen) + –nn– + –e– + –m (pa.t. 1st p. pl. excl.)
i: that
athrannedh: athra- (cross) + –nn– + –e– + –dh (pa.t. 2nd p. pl. form.)
i: the
Vruinen: lenited form of Bruinen (Loudwater)

5. [Gandalf to Elrond:]

Mellonnen! Mo evínedh? [source]

Subtitle: ‘My friend! Where have you been?’
(lit.: ‘My friend! Where have you gone?’)

mellonnen: mellon (friend) + –en (1st p. sg. poss.)
mo: *maw (where?), cf. A Gateway to Sindarin, p. 109
evínedh: e- + mín- (< *men- “go”) + -e- + -dh (pa.t. 2nd p. sg. form.)

6. [Elrond:]

Farannem ‘lamhoth i udul o charad. Dagannem rim na Iant Vedui. Nartho i noer, toltho i viruvor. Boe i annam vann a nethail vin. [source, source]

Subtitle: ‘We’ve been hunting a pack of Orcs that came up from the South. We slew a number near the Last Bridge. Light the fires, bring forth the wine. We must feed our guests.’
(lit.: ‘We’ve been hunting Orcs that came from the South. We slew a number at the Last Bridge. Light the fires, fetch the miruvor. We must give food to our guests.’)

farannem: fara- (hunt) + –nn– + –e– + –m (pa.t. 1st p. pl. excl.)
’lamhoth: lenited form of glamhoth (orcs, lit. “the dinhorde”)
i: who
udul: u– + tol– (tul?) (pa.t. 3rd p. sg.)
o: from
charad: stop-mutated form of harad (south)
dagannem: dag– (slay) + –nn– + –e– + –m (pa.t. 1st p. pl. excl.)
rim: great number
na: at
Iant Vedui: iant (bridge) + medui (last)
nartho: imp. form of nartha– (kindle)
i: reduced form of in (the, pl.)
noer: pl. form of naur (fire)
toltho: imp. form of toltha- (fetch)
i: the
viruvor: lenited form of miruvor
boe: it is necessary
i: that
annam: anna– (give) + –m (pr.t. 1st p. pl. excl.)
*vann: lenited form of *mann (food)
a: reduced form of an (for)
nethail: pl. form of nathal (guest)
vin: lenited form of mín (our)

7. [Lindir and Elrond:]

Lindir: Saim e-mbar a chabed athar glaind ne hi pen in miruvor. Manan in gardh na men i darthathar har?

Subtitle: ‚The kitchen is under enormous strain, we are almost out of wine. How long do you think they will be with us?’
(lit. ‚Chambers of the house ? beyond limits; for now [they are] without the wines. How ? with us they will stay ?)

Mendar uvornor [?]

Subtitle: ‚That has yet to be decided.’

To be analyzed soon…

8. [Gandalf to Galadriel:]

Nae nin gwistant infanneth, mal ú-eichia i Chíril Lorien. [source]

Subtitle: ‘Age may have changed me, but not so the Lady of Lorien.’
(lit.: ‘Alas, age has changed me, but (it) does not change the Lady of Lorien.’)

nae: alas
nin: me
*gwistant: *gwista– (change) (cf. Q vista-) + –nt (pa.t. 3rd p. sg.)
*infanneth: infant (> iphant) (aged, lit. “year-full”) + –eth (cf. prestanneth, Ivanneth)
*mal: but (cf. Q mal)
*ú-eichia: ú- (not) + *eichia- (change) (cf. Q ahya-) (pr.t. 3rd p. sg.)
i: the
Chíril Lorien: lenited form of Híril Lorien (Lady of Lorien)

9. [Galadriel to Gandalf:]

Ae boe i le eliathon, im tulithon. [source]

Subtitle: ‘If you should ever need my help, I will come.’
(lit.: ‘If it will be necessary to help you, I will come.’)

*ae: if (cf. Q ai)
boe: it is necessary
i: that
le: you (acc.)
eliathon: elia– (help) + –tho– (< –tha-) + –n (fut. 1st p. sg.)
im: I myself
tulithon: tol– (tul-?) (come) + –i– + –tho– (< –tha-) + –n (fut. 1st p. sg)

10. [Tauriel:]

Tolo hí! [analysis]

‘Come down’ (or: ‘Come here’)

tolo v. ‚come’; cf. tol-, Quenya tul-
(lenited ) adv. ‚here’

11. [Tauriel:] Lyst in saim [analysis]

‘The cells are empty’

lost adj. ’empty’
in art. pl. ‚the’
sam (pl. *saim) n. ‚chamber, *cell’

12. [Angerthas Daeron runic inscription of Thorin’s sword, Orcrist:]

Nagol e-lýg Orchrist

‘Tooth of Snake, Orc-Cleaver’ [analysis]

nagol n. ‚tooth’
e en art. ‚of the’
lýg n. ‚snake’

13. [Angerthas Daeron runic inscription of Thorin’s scabbard:]

Hyrn o gorf Ithluig; ui ni madweg a suig

‘Ready for action (pl.) from impetus [of] wisdom-serpents; everlasting I [am] gluttonous and thirsty’ [analysis]

*hürn or hyrn adj. pl. ‚ready for action’ (sg. *hurn, cf. hûr n. ‚readiness for action’)
o prep. ‚from, of’
gorf gorw, n. ‚impetus, vigor’
*ithluig, n. ‚wisdom-serpents = dragons’
ui adj. ‚everlasting, eternal’
ni pron. ‚I/me’
madweg adj. ‚gluttonous’ (PE 17:144)
a conj. ‚and’
*soig adj. ‚thirsty’ (cf. Quenya soica ‘thirsty’)


1. [Radagast:]

Cementari celvameldë, si a hlarë ómaquettar.
Lerya laman naiquentallo, na coilerya envinyanta

‘Cementari animal-friend, now listen voice-words.
Release animal from sharp pain, renew it to its life’

envinyata v. ‚to renew’; cf. Envinyatar ‚Renewer’
cuilerya n. ‚its life’; cuile-lya


We’ve all learnt a bit of the Dwarf language, Khuzdûl, so we all have a kind of selection of words to fall back on, and curses and battle-cries…. [Richard Armitage, “Thorin”]

Creation of the movie Dwarvish is described by David Salo on his blog.


1. [Thorin at Bag End :]


‘Silence!’ (Khuzdûl)

2. [Thorin at Bag End:]

Du Bekâr! Du Bekâr! ‘To arms! To arms!’ (Khuzdûl)

3. [Thorin, escaping:]


‘Steady!’ (Khuzdûl)

4. [Thorin in Rivendell:]

Ifridî bekâr!

‘Ready weapons!’ (Khuzdûl)

5. [Thorin in the dungeons:]


‘Comrades!’ (Khuzdûl)

6. In the WETA publications [source]

Gelekh d’ashrud bark ‘Time to swing an axe’ (p. 80)

Nê ikrid ûdar! ‘Never trust the wizard’ (p. 80)

Ikhf’ id-ursu khazâd ‘Feel the fire of the Dwarves’ (p. 97)

Imrid amrad ursul ‘Die a death of flames!’ (p. 97)

Nê ikrid alfer ‘Never trust an Elf’

7. [Ori:]

Gelekh d’ashrud bark

‚Time to swing an axe’ [analysis, source]

8. [Bifur:]

Khuzd belkur!

‚Mighty Dwarf’ [analysis]

9. Nê ikrid Fund! or Nê ikrid Alfir!

‚Never trust an Elf’ [source]

10. „Dwarven Words of the Day [description]:

* agthur ‘contract’, stem ?
*aznâg ‘courage’; stem ?
*aznân ‘darkness’; stem Z-N (HoMe IX 466)
*azrâd ‘magic’; stem ?
*banô ‘treasure’; stem ?
*bark ‘axe’; cf. baruk, ‘axes of’ (HoMe VII 20), Baruk Khazâd! ‘Axes of the Dwarves!’ (Appendix F); stem ?
*belgond ‘pledge’; stem ? [analysis]
*belkîn ‘fortress’; stem ?
‘cave’; cf. gundu, ‘underground hall’ (from stem gunud) (HoMe XII 352).
*sigin-aimu ‘journey (long-?)’; stem S-G-N and ?
targ ‘beard’; stem T-R-G; cf. Sigin-tarâg ‘Longbeards’; stems S-G-N, *T-R-G
*ûnag ‚enemy’; stem ?
*urd ‘mountain’; cf. Sindarin orod; stem ?
‘king, lord’, stem ?
*zul ‘beer’; stem ?

11. [Angerthas Moria runic inscriptions o Dwalin’s axes:]


‚Grasper’ [analysis]


‚Keeper’ [analysis]

12. [Dwalin’s tatoo:]

Baruk Khazâd! Khazâd ai-mênu! [analysis]



Creation of the movie Orkish is described by David Salo on his blog.


1. [Ork scout in the night:]
[…] ‘Send word to the others… we have found the Dwarf-scum’ (missing Black Speech phrase)

2. [Yazneg, the warg-rider:]

[…] ‘The Dwarves are headed East’ (missing Black Speech phrase)

3. [Yazneg on Weathertop:]

Khozdayin… Dorguz… zuranimid ‘The Dwarves… Master – we lost them’ (BS)
Shugi golgai gelnakhanishim ‘Ambushed by Elvish filth, we were…’ (BS)

4. [Azog to Yazneg on Weathertop:]

Sha nargiz ob-hakhtil… ‘I don’t want excuses…’ (BS)
Nargiz khobdi… Rani Khozdil! ‘I want the head of the Dwarf King!’ (BS)

5. [Yazneg to Azog on Weathertop:]

Murganish dum… ‘We were outnumbered…’ (BS)
Turim hag shad ‘There was nothing we could do’ (BS)
Zorzor go-kairaz obguraniz ‘I barely escaped with my life’ (BS)

6. [Azog on Weathertop, first to Yazneg, then to Fimbul:]

Ki go-kairag baganig. Ombar bunish! ‘Better you had paid with it’ (BS)
Khozd-shrakhun gud sha kilyash-zag ‘The Dwarf scum will not stay hidden for long’ (BS)
Giryashi taryash kirgayil ‘They will try to cross the Mountain passes’ (BS)
Zidgar obod tung nash ru khobdud. ‘Send out word… there is a price on their heads’ (BS)

7. [Azog in the dungeons:]

[…] ‘The scent is fresh. They have taken the Mountain pass’ (missing dialog in BS)

8. [Azog:]

Nuzdigid? Nuzdi gast ‘Do you smell it? The scent of fear’ (BS)
Ganzilig-i unarug obod nauzdanish ‘I remember your father reeked of it’ (BS)
Torin undag Train-ob ‘Thorin son of Thrain’ (BS)
Kod ‘That one’ (BS)
Toragid biriz ‘Bring him to me’ (BS)
Worori-da ‘Kill the others!’ (BS)
Sho gad adol! ‘Drink their blood!’ (BS)
Biriz torag khobdudol! ‘Bring me his head! (BS)



1. “Radagast the Brown” [Sindarin]
“Above this dense collection of forest murmurs, boys chorus sings a text by Phillippa Boyens” [translated by David Salo]:

Meno, edveno
O galad vos i lais
Lim, meno lim
Na fuin, trí dhuaith …

‘Away! Away! / From soft leaf-light / Hurry! Hurry! / Through dark of night … ‘. Literally the text is: ‘Go, go forth / from [the] light soft [of] the leaves /Lightly, go lightly /to [the] nightshade, through dark-shadow’.

*meno v. imp. ‘go!’; *men-, √MEN ‘way, region’
*edveno v. imp. ‘go forth’’; < *ed-men-, cf. *men-, √ET ‘forth, out’ and √MEN ‘way, region’
o prep. ‘from, of’
galad n. ‘light, bright light’
*mos (lenited vos) adj. ‘soft’; cf. Quenya mussë ‘soft’, √MUS
lais n. pl. ‘leaves’
lim adj., adv. ‘clear, sparkling, light’; cf. noro lim, Asfaloth *’run lightly, Asfaloth’ (I 222)
na prep. ‘to, toward, at’
fuin n. ‘night, gloom, darkness, dead of night, nightshade’
trî prep. ‘through’
dhuaith n. pl. ‘nightshade, dark shadow’, sg. dúath

2. “The Hidden Valley” [Sindarin]
“Gandalf eventually leads the Dwarves to the safety of Imladris, the Last Homely House and home to Elrond, Master of Rivendell. Rivendell’s timeless music is embellished with tolling chimes, harp glissandi, and female voices singing “Rivendell Revealed” in Sindarin, the Elves’ common tongue. However, Elrond is not the only Elf to hold sway in Rivendell — and Gandalf is not the only Wizard. Also present are Galadriel, the Lady of Lórien, and Saruman, wisest of his order. While the Dwarves accept the invitation issued in Rivendell’s choral text —

Edwenno brestaid en-Amar

‘Lay down your troubles, set aside your fear’ [lit. ‚Set aside troubles of [the] Earth’]

*edwenno v. imp. ‘set aside’; √ET ‘forth, out’ and √? ‘?’
*prestaid (lenited brestaid), n. ‘trouble’, sg. *prestad; cf. presta- v. ‘affect, trouble, disturb’
en, e- art. ‘of the’
Amar n. ‘Earth’

3. Galadriel’s theme [Quenya]
“Female chorus sings”:

Ninquë silë misë nár
Nóna silmë andané

‘A white fire shines within her / The light of a star, born long ago’.

ninquë adj. ‘chill, palid, white’
silë v. (aorist) ‘shines’; cf. sil- ‘shine’
misë, pron. ‘(with)in her’
nár n. ‘flame, fire’
*nóna adj. ‘born’; isolated from Apanónar ‘After-born’
silmë n. ‘starlight’
*andané adv. ‘long ago’ (VT#49, p. 31)


Anglo-Saxon runes (English runes)

the teaser runes [?], WETA hip-flask, Thorin’s Key, Dwarvish costumes

Angerthas Daeron (Elvish runes)

Orcrist (here and here – the blade, and here the scabbard, Sindarin), Glamdring (blade, Sindarin), Gandalf’s Mark (here)

Angerthas Moria (Dwarvish runes)

Thorin’s Ring [?], Dwalins Axes, Dwalin’s Tattoos

To be continued…

G-i-P stands for Gwaith-i-Phethain, ‘The Fellowship of the Word-smiths’ or the linguistic website devoted to post-Tolkienian constructions in the “reconstructed” languages of Middle-earth [link].

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Kategorie wpisu: Filmy: Hobbit i WP, G-i-P Report, In Westron (English), Lingwistyka

5 Komentarzy do wpisu "G-i-P Report: The Hobbit linguistic summary
(to be continued)"

Kaloyan Ivanov, dnia 20.12.2012 o godzinie 12:29

Other words of the day include:

agthur ‚contract’, stem ?
uzbad ‚king, lord’, stem ?
targ ‚beard’; stem T-R-G

cf. Sigin-tarâg ‚Longbeards’; stems S-G-N, *T-R-G

Galadhorn, dnia 20.12.2012 o godzinie 14:05

Kaloyan, thank you very much. I have added these words now.


What is winter in your country? Do you have Christmas on the same time as we?

Kaloyan Ivanov, dnia 20.12.2012 o godzinie 20:20


Well, it’s pretty much the same as in Poland, down to the traditions on Christmas’ Eve and Xmass, though I’ll be spending the holidays taking time off work, meeting with friends and family, watching The Hobbit again 😉 and reading a few books.

Wesołych Świąt, Ryszard!

(Phew, I still remember a few Polish words thanks to my friend Przemysław :))

Galadhorn, dnia 26.12.2012 o godzinie 1:15

:-) Merry Christmas to you, Kaloyan, and to all!

I watched this movie again in the cinema. Concerning the Quenya text I heard something like:

[Radagast:] (…) sina, hlara óma, quettar envinyata cuilelya

In Orkish (Black Speech) I’ve heard something like Kazd ‚Dwarf’.

Malu, dnia 22.04.2014 o godzinie 15:19

Ikhf’ id-ursu khazâd ‘Feel the fire of the Dwarves’ (p. 97)

I think it’s

urus, not ursu. As said in Midgardsmal blog, it seems to be a direct borrowing from Valarin uruš.

Ikhf’ id-urus khazâd. Maybe I’m wrong, but check it :)

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